Design and experimental test of runner blade for small axial pico-propeller turbines model

Pribadyo Pribadyo


Environmental degradation due to the use of conventional fossil fuel remains an obstacle to sustainable development. For this reason, many countries currently consider the integration of renewable energy sources into their power sectors as an economically friendly and promising alternative to the use of fossil fuels. One form of green technology is the pico-propeller turbines. This turbine works based on the pressure of flowing water and its best performance is determined by the hydraulic stability of its blades. It is thus necessary to design suitable and hydraulically stable runner blades for these turbines. Therefore, this study aims to design a suitable runner blade for a pico-propeller turbine model that will aid in the optimal extraction of electrical energy from the fluid flow in sewer lines. The turbine wheel consists of four blades per section with a diameter of 0.150 meters and a pivot point of 0.30 meters and it was designed to fit a 5-inch diameter pipe with blade angle configurations of 25°, 30°, and 35°. Furthermore, performance tests were conducted at different flow rates, ranging from 0.00134 m3/s to 0.0047 m3/s with a 3.5 m head, after which the findings were compared to that of the other research. The results showed that maximum efficiency and performance were achieved with the blade angle of 25° at a flow rate of 0.0027 m3/s.


Small axial pico-propeller turbine, runner blades, design, experiment test

Full Text:



S. Phitaksurachai, R. Pan-Aram, N. Sritrakul, and Y. Tiaple, “Performance Testing of Low Head Small Hydro Power Development in Thailand,” Energy Procedia, vol. 138, pp. 1140–1146, 2017.

Republik Indonesia, Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia No. 22 concerning the General Plan of National Energy. 2017.

A. T. A. 2006 Purwanto. W. W., Nugroho. Y. S., Rinaldy. D., Harsono. S., Wahid. A., Supramono. D., Herminna. D., Indonesia Energy Outlook and Statistics 2006. Pengkajian Energi Universitas Indonesia Gedung Engineering Center Lantai 3 Fakultas Teknik Universitas Indonesia Depok, 2006.

A. Tasri and A. Susilawati, “Selection among renewable energy alternatives based on a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process in Indonesia,” Sustain. Energy Technol. Assessments, vol. 7, pp. 34–44, 2014.

A. Date and A. Akbarzadeh, “Design and cost analysis of low head simple reaction hydro turbine for remote area power supply,” Renew. Energy, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 409–415, 2009.

A. A. Ghadimi, F. Razavi, and B. Mohammadian, “Determining optimum location and capacity for micro hydropower plants in Lorestan province in Iran,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 4125–4131, 2011.

J. A. Laghari, H. Mokhlis, A. H. A. Bakar, and H. Mohammad, “A comprehensive overview of new designs in the hydraulic, electrical equipments and controllers of mini hydro power plants making it cost effective technology,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 20, pp. 279–293, 2013.

C. P. Jawahar and P. A. Michael, “A review on turbines for micro hydro power plant,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 72. Elsevier Ltd, pp. 882–887, 2017.

H. Zainuddin, A. Khamis, M. S. Yahaya, M. F. M. Basar, J. M. Lazi, and Z. Ibrahim, “Investigation on the performance of pico-hydro generation system using consuming water distributed to houses,” Proc. 1st Int. Conf. Dev. Renew. Energy Technol. ICDRET 2009, pp. 210–213, 2009.

H. M. Ramos, M. Simão, and K. N. Kenov, “Low-Head Energy Conversion: A Conceptual Design and Laboratory Investigation of a Microtubular Hydro Propeller,” ISRN Mech. Eng., vol. 2012, pp. 1–10, 2012.

C. Trivedi, M. J. Cervantes, and O. G. Dahlhaug, “Numerical Techniques Applied to Hydraulic Turbines: A Perspective Review,” Appl. Mech. Rev., vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 1–18, 2016.

L. L. Oo, S. Y. Win, and K. Z. Lin, “Design of Blade for 5kW Propeller Turbine,” Int. J. Sci. Eng. Appl., vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 336–340, 2018.

Y. Nishi, Y. Kobayashi, T. Inagaki, and N. Kikuchi, “The Design Method of Axial Flow Runners Focusing on Axial Flow Velocity Uniformization and Its Application to an Ultra-Small Axial Flow Hydraulic Turbine,” Int. J. Rotating Mach., pp. 1–13, 2016.

R. S. Shukla and C. Parashar, “Design of Propeller Turbine for Micro Hydro Power Station Using CFD,” vol. 1, no. 7, pp. 37–41, 2017.

S. Byeon and Y. Kim, “Influence of Blade Number on the Flow Characteristics in the Vertical Axis Influence of Blade Number on the Flow Characteristics in the Vertical Axis Propeller Hydro Turbine,” vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 144–151, 2013.

European Small Hydropower Association - ESHA, “Electromechanical Equipment,” Guid. how to Dev. a small hydropower plant, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 154–196, 2004.

S. L. Dixon, “Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery,” no. 14, Elsevier Inc., 2014, pp. 361–418.

S. L. Dixon, Fluid Mechanics And Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery, Sixth Edit. Elsevier Inc., 2010.

Rama S. R. Gorla, Turbomachinery Design and Theory. Marcel Dekker.Inc, 2003.

P. Pribadyo, H. Hadiyanto, and J. Jamari, “Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis of propeller turbine runner blades using various blade angles,” Int. Energy J., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 385–400, 2021.

R. Simpson and A. Williams, “Design of propeller turbines for pico hydro,” pp. 1–15, 2011.

V. L. Vu, Z. Chen, and Y.-D. Choi, “Design and Performance of a Pico Propeller Hydro Turbine Model,” KSFM J. Fluid Mach., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 44–51, 2018.

P. Singh and F. Nestmann, “Influence of the Blade Hub Geometry on the Performance of Low-Head Axial Flow Turbines,” no. September, pp. 109–118, 2012.

S. S. Byeon, J. H. Boo, J. Y. Park, S. S. Kim, and Y. J. Kim, “Numerical study on the flow characteristics of low head small hydraulic turbine,” Adv. Mater. Res., vol. 732–733, pp. 436–442, 2013.

S. Kim, Y. Choi, Y. Cho, J. Choi, and J. Kim, “Effect of Blade Thickness on the Hydraulic Performance of a Francis Hydro Turbine Model,” Renew. Energy, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 144–151, 2018.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Add comment

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.





Lisensi Creative Commons

Ciptaan disebarluaskan di bawah Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi-BerbagiSerupa 4.0 Internasional.


Mailing Address:

Politeknik Negeri Lhokseumawe

Jl. Banda Aceh-Medan
Km. 280,3, Buketrata, Mesjid Punteut, Blang Mangat,
Kota Lhokseumawe, 24301

Propinsi Aceh,