Kekuatan Dan Durabilitas Bahan Komposit Sandwich Plywood Polimer Serat Gelas

Azwar Yunus

Abstrak


Abstrak— Plywood dikenal sebagai bahan yang terbuat dari lembaran vinir kayu yang direkatkan bersama dengan susunan bersilangan tegak lurus dan dapat diperoleh secara mudah dalam berbagai merek dagang. Untuk aplikasi structural keteknikan seperti untuk bahan baku perahu, plywood tidak memiliki sifat mekanik dan fisik yang memadai, namun setelah direkayasa melalui penguatan dengan polimer serat gelas membentuk komposit sandwich. Salah satu masalah utama penggunaan plywood adalah bila terkena air, setelah di buat menjadi komposit sandwich, tentu saja kemampuannya dalam lingkungan air akan berubah menjadi lebih baik. Untuk dapat digunakan sebagai bahan structural, maka bahan tersebut harus memiliki sifat mekanik yang baik dan tidak terdegradasi secara signifikan akibat perendaman dalam air. Spesimen uji dibuat dari bahan plywood (merek lumba-lumba) dilapisi dengan polyester serat gelas pada kedua permukaannya membentuk  komposit sandwich. Penelitian dilakukan untuk mempelajari kekuatan bahan komposit sandwich plywood polimer serat gelas melalui pengujian tarik  (ASTM D 3039) dan  pengujian bending (ASTM C 1341-06),  kemudian durabilitas bahan dalam lingkungan air di pelajari melalui perendaman long time immersion (ASTM D570-98). Hasilnya diperoleh bahwa bahan komposit sandwich plywood polimer serat gelas memiliki kekuatan yang cukup baik sebagai bahan structural keteknikan dimana proses sandwich mampu meningkatkan kekuatan tarik  dari bahan plywood dari 58 MPa menjadi 76 MPa  bila diperkuat polyester serat gelas dan menjadi 93 MPa bila diperkuat dengam resin polimer serat gelas.   Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa Resin epoxy menunjukkan keunggulannya dibanding polyester sebagai bahan lapisan penguat. Jumlah lapisan penguat (skin) memberikan pengaruh positif dalam meningkatkan kekuatan, sedangkan ketebalan plywood (core) tidak terlalu  berpengaruh malah terlihat bahwa semakin tebal core kekuatan menunjukkan trend yang menurun. Pola kegagalan spesimen juga menunjukkan ada proses delaminasi pada interface antara plywood dan kulit penguatnya, dimana terlihat bahwa bagian plywood menjadi bagian terlemah dari spesimen.

Kata kunci— kekuatan tarik, komposit sandwich, plywood, polimer serat gelas, durabilitas.

 

Abstract— Plywood is known as an a kind of material made from wood veneer sheets that are glued together with structures perpendicular to the cross and can be easily obtained in various trademarks. For structural engineering applications such as for boat raw materials, plywood does not have adequate mechanical and physical properties, but through the an engineering design by reinforcement with glass fiber polymers to form a composite sandwich. The main problems of using plywood for structural application is regarding to water exposed to water, it can overcome by applying the polymer composite in both of surfaces, of course its ability in the water environment will change to be better. For using as a structural application, the material must have good mechanical properties and physical properties and not significantly degraded due to immersion in water. In this work, the test specimens made from plywood that reinforced with polymer and glass fiber on both surfaces. The study was conducted to study the strength of composite sandwich of plywood and polymer reinforced of glass fiber. The mechanical properties was observed through tensile testing (ASTM D 3039) and bending testing (ASTM C 1341-06), then the durability of materials in the water environment was studied through the long time immersion in water (ASTM D570-98). The results was shown that the composite sandwich of plywood and polymer reinforced of glass fiber has good strength as a structural material where the sandwich process is able to increase the tensile strength of plywood material from 58 MPa to 76 MPa when reinforced with glass fiber polyester resin and to 93 MPa when reinforced with glass fiber epoxy resin. It was indicated that epoxy resin superiority compared to polyester as a matrix. The number of reinforcing layers as skin has a positive effect in increasing the strength, while the thickness of plywood as core was not it is seen that the thicker the core (plywood) the strength have a slightly decrease. The pattern of specimen failure also shows that there is a delamination process on the interface between the plywood and the reinforcing skin, where it appears that the plywood part becomes the weakest part of the specimen.
Keywords— tensile strength, sandwich composite, plywood, glass fiber polymer, durability

 


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Referensi


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