Pengaruh masukan panas proses pengelasan terhadap sifat mekanik baja AISI 1045 suatu kajian analitis dan analisa numerik

Hamdani - Hamdani

Abstract


Pada penelitian ini sembilan buah benda uji pelat baja AISI 1045 dilas dengan pengelasan SMAW  dengan tiga variasi arus,tegangan, dan kecepatan pengelasan, yaitu 80 A, 90 A, dan 100 A. Voltase pengelasan 20 V, 25 V, dan 28 V. Kecepatan pengelasan 2 mm/detik, 3 mm/detik, dan 4 mm/detik. Untuk masing-masing variasi diuji sebanyak tiga spesimen. Kemudian hasil pengelasan dipreparasi sehingga membentuk spesimen uji tarik standar JIS Z 2201 No 14A. Kemudian dilakukan pengujian tarik untuk mengamati distribusi tegangan dan kekuatan tarik pada spesimen uji. Spesimen hasil pengujian kemudian dianalisis dengan metode numerik menggunakan program ANSYS. Analisa tegangan dilakukan dengan memberikan beban sesuai dengan hasil pengujian tarik. Simulasi dilakukan dengan memasukkan efek masukan panas dan temperatur pada daerah HAZ. Hasil pengujian eksperimental  menunjukkan bahwa masukan panas proses pengelasan mempengaruhi sifat mekanik baja AISI 1045. Masukan panas yang besar menghasilkan kekuatan tarik yang rendah. Parameter masukan panas dengan arus 80 A, tegangan 20 V, kecepatan pengelasan 2 mm/dtk menghasilkan kekuatan tarik sebesar 428 MPa. Semua spesimen yang diuji tidak putus pada daerah lasan, ini menandakan bahwa sambungan las dengan elektroda yang digunakan dan parameter pengelasan yang diberikan menghasilkan kekuatan sambungan yang baik. Terdapat perbedaan antara tegangan hasil pengujian dengan simulasi sebesar 4,1%, hal ini disebabkan antara lain adalah faktor geometri, pembebanan dan mesh.

 Kata kunci: SMAW, masukan panas, pengujian, simulasi, kekuatan tarik

 

  

Abstrack

In this study nine pieces of AISI 1045 steel plate were welded by welding SMAW with three variations of current, voltage, and welding speed, namely 80 A, 90 A, and 100 A. Welding voltage 20 V, 25 V, and 28 V. Speed welding 2 mm / sec, 3 mm / sec, and 4 mm / sec. For each variation three specimens were tested. Then the welding results are prepared so that they form a standard JIS Z 2201 No 14A tensile test specimen. Then a tensile test is performed to observe the stress distribution and tensile strength of the test specimen. The test specimens are then analyzed by numerical methods using the ANSYS program. Voltage analysis is carried out by giving a load according to the results of tensile testing. Simulation is done by entering the effect of heat and temperature input on the HAZ region. The experimental results show that the heat input of the welding process affects the mechanical properties of steel AISI 1045. Large heat input results in low tensile strength. The heat input parameter with a current of 80 A, a voltage of 20 V, a welding speed of 2 mm / sec produces a tensile strength of 428 MPa. All specimens tested did not break up in the weld area, this indicates that the welded joints with the electrodes used and the given welding parameters produced good joint strength. There is a difference between the test result voltage and the simulation of 4.1%, this is due to, among others, geometry, loading and mesh factors.

 Keywords: SMAW, heat input, testing, simulation, tensile strength


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30811/jpl.v17i1.827

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